There is no deity except Allah (the One and Only God), Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

A Forgotten Covenant

(Also called ‘Charter of Privileges’: to the monks of St. Catherine Monastery in Mt. Sinai.)

“This is a message from Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, near and far, we are with them. Verily I, the servants, the helpers, and my followers defend them, because Christians are my citizens; and by Allah! I hold out against anything that displeases them.

No compulsion is to be on them. Neither are their judges to be removed from their jobs nor their monks from their monasteries

No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims’ houses. Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God’s covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate.

No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight. The Muslims are to fight for them. If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, it is not to take place without her approval. She is not to be prevented from visiting her church to pray.

Their churches are to be respected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants. No one of the nation (Muslims) is to disobey the covenant till the Last Day (end of the world).”*

*The English translated text of the Charter of Privileges was extracted from the Book ‘Muslim History: 570 – 1950 C.E.’ by Dr. A. Zahoor and Dr. Z. Haq, ZMD Corporation. P.O. Box 8231 – Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8231 – Copyright Akram Zahoor 2000. P. 167.


Prophet Muhammad’s Treaty With Christians Of Najran
Dr. A. Zahoor

In the year 10 A.H. (631 CE), Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) received a delegation of sixty Christians from Najran in Medinah. The territory of Najran was located south of Bani Khath’am near Yemen, about 450 miles south of Medinah. They were received in the Prophet’s mosque, and the Prophet allowed them to pray in the mosque, which they did facing East. This group of Christians followed Byzantine rite.

They discussed with the Prophet the points of doctrine including the nature of God, and he replied them by reciting Surah Ikhlas (112) of the Qur’an. It begins with the word ‘Qul’ meaning ‘Say’. The translation of the meaning of the Surah is: ‘Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah, the eternally Besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him’. Further discussion on the nature of Prophet Jesus (pbuh) led to some disagreements, on which he recited them the three Ayats of the Qur’an from Surah Ale-‘Imran (3:59-61). After three days, the Christian delegation decided to conclude its mission.

In spite of doctrinal disagreements, the Prophet concluded a treaty with the people of Najran. The Prophet dictated the terms of the treaty to Abdullah b. Abu Bakr, who served as one of his scribes, and it was witnessed by five companions whose names are: Abu Sufyan b. Harb, Ghilan b. Amr, Malik b. Auf, Aqra’ b. Habis, and Mughira b. Shu’ba. The treaty provided religious and administrative autonomy for non-Muslim citizens of the Islamic State. All sincere Muslim rulers have adhered to the founding principles of this treaty in managing the affairs of non-Muslim subjects throughout the centuries.


Prophet Muhammad’s Treaty With Jews (622 C.E.)
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) decided to leave Mecca because the Meccan chiefs had taken action to kill him at his home. It was the year 622 CE. As far the choice of migrating to Medina (known as Yathrib at that time), the decision was made easier by the second ‘Pledge of Aqaba’ made a year before on the occasion of the annual rites of pilgrimage. The pledge was made by seventy three men and two women of Khazraj and Aws communities of Medina. They had accepted Islam and wanted to invite the Prophet to migrate to Medina. Their motivation for this move, apart from recognizing him as the Prophet, the trustworthy, and the best in conduct in Mecca, was to bring peace and security between the Khazraj and Aws. They were often at war with each other and the Battle of Bu’ath had shattered their strength completely. They desperately needed a leader who could be trusted by both communities and bring peace in Medina. As part of the pledge, they were to protect the Prophet as they would protect their women and children if he were attacked by the Meccans.

Among the people in Medina, there was a small community (three tribes) of Jews with Arab communities constituting the majority of the population. Because of wars going on for several generations, the resources of the Arabs were depleted and their influence in Medina was dwindling. The Jews were traders and many of them used to lend money at exorbitant interest. The continuing wars boosted their economy and personal wealth.

The immediate result of the Prophet’s migration to Medina was peace and unity between the communities of Aws and Khazraj. The Prophet, motivated by the general welfare of citizens of Medina, decided to offer his services to the remaining communities including the Jews. He had already laid down the basis for relationship between the Emigrants from Mecca (known as Muhajirin) and Medinites (known as the Ansar, the helpers).

The Treaty between Muslims, non-Muslim Arabs and Jews of Medina was put in writing and ratified by all parties. It has been preserved by the historians. The document referred Muhammad (pbuh) as the Prophet and Messenger of God but it was understood that the Jews did not have to recognize him as such for their own religious reasons. The major parts of the document were:

“In the name of Allah (The One True God) the Compassionate, the Merciful. This is a document from Muhammad, the Prophet, governing the relation between the Believers from among the Qurayshites (i.e., Emigrants from Mecca) and Yathribites (i.e., the residents of Medina) and those who followed them and joined them and strived with them. They form one and the same community as against the rest of men.

“No Believer shall oppose the client of another Believer. Whosoever is rebellious, or seeks to spread injustice, enmity or sedition among the Believers, the hand of every man shall be against him, even if he be a son of one of them. A Believer shall not kill a Believer in retaliation of an unbeliever, nor shall he help an unbeliever against a Believer.

“Whosoever among the Jews follows us shall have help and equality; they shall not be injured nor shall any enemy be aided against them…. No separate peace will be made when the Believers are fighting in the way of Allah…. The Believers shall avenge the blood of one another shed in the way of Allah ….Whosoever kills a Believer wrongfully shall be liable to retaliation; all the Believers shall be against him as one man and they are bound to take action against him.

“The Jews shall contribute (to the cost of war) with the Believers so long as they are at war with a common enemy. The Jews of Banu Najjar, Banu al-Harith, Banu Sa’idah, Banu Jusham, Banu al-Aws, Banu Tha’labah, Jafnah, and Banu al-Shutaybah enjoy the same rights and priviledges as the Jews of Banu Aws.

“The Jews shall maintain their own religion and the Muslims theirs. Loyalty is a protection against treachery. The close friends of Jews are as themselves. None of them shall go out on a military expedition except with the permission of Muhammad, but he shall not be prevented from taking revenge for a wound.

“The Jews shall be responsible for their expenses and the Believers for theirs. Each, if attacked, shall come to the assistance of the other.

“The valley of Yathrib (Medina) shall be sacred and inviolable for all that join this Treaty. Strangers, under protection, shall be treated on the same ground as their protectors; but no stranger shall be taken under protection except with consent of his tribe….No woman shall be taken under protection without the consent of her family.

Whatever difference or dispute between the parties to this covenant remains unsolved shall be referred to Allah and to Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. Allah is the Guarantor of the piety and goodness that is embodied in this covenant. Neither the Quraysh nor their allies shall be given any protection.

“The contracting parties are bound to help one another against any attack on Yathrib. If they are called to cease hostilities and to enter into peace, they shall be bound to do so in the interest of peace; and if they make a similar demand on Muslims it must be carried out except when the war is against their religion.

“Allah approves the truth and goodwill of this covenant. This treaty shall not protect the unjust or the criminal. Whoever goes out to fight as well as whoever stays at home shall be safe and secure in this city unless he has perpetrated an injustice or committed a crime…. Allah is the protector of the good and God-fearing people.”

The first written constitution of a State ever promulgated by a sovereign in human history emanated from the Prophet of Islam. It was enacted from the first year of Hijrah (622 CE). The treaty stipulated a city state in Medina, allowing wide autonomy to communities. Private justice was to be banished. The head of the State had the prerogative to decide who should participate in an expedition, the war and peace being indivisible. Social insurance was to be instituted.

The name Yathrib was changed to Medinat-un-Nabawi, meaning the ‘City of the Prophet’ soon after he migrated there. The use of only the first word in that name (i.e., Medinah) became popular later.

History does not record much as to when first Jewish migration from north to Yathrib (Medina) began as their numbers remained small throughout their stay there. Among the major reasons for their settlements in Arabia were: the relative peace and security in north Arabia with orchards and gardens; the Arab trade route linking Yemen, Arabia, Syria and Iraq; and continuing tensions resulting from wars between the Romans and Persians in the area around the Holy Land. Some of the learned men among the Christians and Jews had also moved to this area based on their conviction that the advent of the final Prophet of God was near, who was to settle in this area. Bahira, the monk, and Salman, the Persian, were some of the people who moved to the caravan route to or near this area. Salman was told by his last Christian sage:

“He will be sent with the religion of Abraham and will come forth in Arabia where he will emigrate from his home to a place between two lava tracts, a country of palms. His Signs are manifest: he will eat of a gift but not if it is given as alms, and between his shoulders is the seal of prophesy.”

Yathrib was the only city fitting this description.

Salman (ra) was born into a Zoroastrian family of Isfahan, Persia. He became a Christian as a young boy and traveled to Syria in search of truth about God and associated himself with the Bishop of Mosul and after the Bishop’s death to several other Christian sages. On one of his travels to Gulf of ‘Aqaba, north of Red Sea, he was sold to a Jew as a slave by his caravan leader. Salman (ra) was then sold again to a Jew of Banu Quraizah in Yathrib just before Prophet Muhammad’s migration.

After confirming these signs, Salamn (ra) accepted Islam and, due to his sincerity and dedication to Islam, he was accepted by the Prophet as ‘one of the Prophet’s household.’ It was on his advice a trench was dug around Medina. The trench (in the ‘Battle of Ahzab,’ also known as the ‘Battle of Trench’) took the Meccan army by surprise and they and their confederates (Arabs and Jews) could not accomplish the plan of wiping out Islam and Muslims of Medina.


Prophet Muhammad’s Letters To Kings (628 CE)
The Prophet (pbuh) and his followers were busy digging the trench in preparation for the defense of their city, Medina, from the attack of more than ten thousand strong Meccan army that was only a few days away. The event that was to follow is known as the ‘Battle of Trench’ (627 CE). It was during this digging that Umar (ra) needed help to dislodge a rock. The Prophet gave the rock a blow with a pickaxe at which a flare as of lightning flashed back over the city and toward the south. In an attempt to loosen it, he gave it another blow and again there was a flash but in the direction of Uhud mountain and beyond it toward the north. A third blow split the rock into fragments, and this time the light flashed eastwards. Salman Farsi, the Persian, (ra) saw the three flashes, and convinced that they must have some significance asked the Prophet for an interpretation. The Prophet answered:

By the light of the first I saw the castles of Yemen; by the light of the second I saw the castles of Syria; by the light of the third I saw the white palace of Kisra (Chosroes, King of Persia) at Mada’in. Through the first Allah (The One True God) has opened to me Yemen; through the second He has opened to me Syria and the West; and through the third the East.

The following year after the treaty of Hudaibiya, the Prophet decided to write to neighboring kings, including those of the two superpowers, summoning them to Islam. In order to make the selection of ambassadors to the rulers, he asked his Companions to assemble in the Mosque. After performing the obligatory prayer, he addressed them:

“O people! Allah has sent me as the one who is compassionate to the mankind and the prophet to the world. Therefore preach (the message of Islam) on my behalf, Allah will have Mercy upon you…”

The Prophet then selected some of his very competent companions as ambassadors to kings and heads of states. Some of them are listed below:

Dihyah ibn Khalifah al-Kalbi (ra) Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantines (Eastern Roman Empire)

‘Abdullah bin Hudhafah (ra) Chosroes II (Emperor of Persian Empire)
‘Amr bin Umayyah (ra) Negus, King of Abyssinia
Hatib’ bin Abi Baitah (ra) Muqawqis, Ruler of Egypt
Shuja bin Wahab al-Asadi (ra) Harith Gassani, Governor of Syria
‘Ala bin Hadrami (ra)  Al-Mundhir bin Sawa, Ruler of Bahrain

The wording of the Prophet’s letters was similar. The text of the letter sent to Heraclius was as follows:

“In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. This letter is from Muhammad the slave of Allah and his Apostle to Heraclius, the ruler of the Byzantines. Peace be upon him who follows the right path. Furthermore, I invite you to Islam and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islam you will be committing a sin by misguiding your subjects. And I recite to you Allah’s statement:

“O People of the Scriptures! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allah. Then if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allah). (Qur’an: Surah 3, Ayah 64).”

All the Prophet’s letters were stamped with the words: “Muhammad Rasul-ullah” (Muhammad the Messenger of Allah). Three of the Prophet’s letters have been preserved.


Negus And Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
The Quraysh (of Mecca) intensified their persecutions against Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his followers. Even influential men who now followed the Prophet were not spared. They were boycotted and several of them were restrained in their own homes. Many of the Muslims with little or no influence were tortured publicly and repeatedly. Finding this continuing situation difficult to bear for his followers, the Prophet allowed some of them to emigrate to Abyssinia in 615 CE. Their total number was about eighty, not counting the small children. They did not all go at the same time. Their flight was secretly planned and carried out unobtrusively in small groups. The emigrants were well received in Abyssinia, and were allowed complete freedom of worship.

The leaders of Quraysh, however, were none the less determined that they should not be left in peace, to establish there, beyond their control, a dangerous community which might be increased tenfold if other converts joined them. So they speedily thought out a plan, and made ready a quantity of presents of a kind that the Abyssinians were known to value most. Leatherwork they prized above all, so a large number of fine skins were collected, enough to make a rich bribe for every one of the Negus’s generals. There were also rich gifts for the Negus himself. Then they carefully chose two men, one of whom was ‘Amr ibn al-‘As, of the clan of Sahm. Quraysh told them exactly what to do: they were to approach each of the generals separately, give him his present, and say:

“Some foolish young men and women of our people have taken refuge in this kingdom. They have left their own religion, not for yours, but for one they have invented, one that is unknown to us and to yourselves. The nobles of their people have sent us to your king on their account, that he may send them home. So when we speak to him about them, counsel him to deliver them into our hands and have no words with them.”

The generals all agreed, and the two men of Quraysh took their presents to the Negus, asking that the emigrants should be given into their hands and explaining the reason as they had done to the generals, and finally adding: “The nobles of their people, who are their fathers, their uncles and their’ kinsmen, beg thee to restore them unto them.” The generals were present at the audience, and now with one voice they urged the Negus to comply with their request and give up the refugees, inasmuch as kinsmen are the best judges of the affairs of their kinsmen. But the Negus was displeased and said:

“Nay, by God, they shall not be betrayed – a people that have sought my protection and made my country their abode and chosen me above all others! Give them up I will not, until I have summoned them and questioned them concerning what these men say of them. If it be as they have said, then will I deliver them unto them, that they may restore them to their own people. But if not, then will I be their good protector so long as they seek my protection.”

Then he sent for the companions of the Prophet, and at the same time assembled his bishops, who brought with them their sacred books and spread them open round about the throne. ‘Amr and his fellow envoy had hoped to prevent this meeting between the Negus and the refugees, and it was indeed in their interests to prevent it, even more so than they realized.

The Abyssinians were Christians, many of them devout; they had been baptized, they worshiped the One God, and they carried in their flesh the sacrament of Eucharist. As such they were sensitive to the difference between the sacred and the profane, and they were keenly conscious of the profanity of men like ‘Amr. So much the more were they receptive – none more than the Negus himself – to the impression of holy earnestness and depth which was made on them by the company of believers who were now ushered into the throne room, and a murmur of wonderment arose from the bishops and others as they recognized that here were men and women more akin to themselves than to such of Quraysh as they had previously encountered. Moreover, most of them were young, and in many of them their piety demeanor was enhanced by a great natural beauty.

Not for all of them had the emigration been a necessity. ‘Uthman’s family had given up trying to make him (ra) recant, but the Prophet none the less allowed him to go and to take with him Ruqayyah (ra). Their presence was a source of strength to the community of exiles. Another couple very pleasing to look upon were Ja’far (ra) and his wife Asma’ (ra). They were well protected by Abu Talib; but the refugees needed a spokesman and Ja’far was an eloquent speaker. He was also most winning in his person, and the Prophet said to him on one occasion: “Thou art like me in looks and character.” It was Ja’far he had chosen to preside over the community of exiles; and his qualities of attraction and intelligence were amply seconded by Musab of ‘Abd ad-Dar (ra), a young man whom the Prophet was later to entrust with a mission of immense importance in virtue of his natural gifts.

When they were all assembled, the Negus spoke to them and said:

“What is this religion wherein ye have become separate from your people, though ye have not entered my religion nor that of any other of the folk that surround us?” Ja’far answered him saying:

“O King, we were people steeped in ignorance, worshiping idols, eating unsacrificed carrion, committing abominations, and the strong would devour the weak. Thus we were, until Allah sent us a Messenger from out of our midst, one whose lineage we knew, and his veracity and his worthiness of trust and his integrity. He called us unto God, that we should testify to His Oneness and worship Him and renounce what we and our fathers had worshiped in the way of stones and idols; and he commanded us to speak truly, to fulfil our promises, to respect the ties of kinship and the rights of our neighbors, and to refrain from crimes and from bloodshed. So we worship God alone, setting naught beside Him, counting as forbidden what He hath forbidden and as licit what He hath allowed. For these reasons have our people turned against us, and have persecuted us to make us forsake our religion and revert from the worship of God to the worship of idols. That is why we have come to thy country, having chosen thee above all others; and we have been happy in thy protection, and it is our hope, O King, that here with thee we shall not suffer wrong.”

The royal interpreters translated all that he had said. The Negus then asked if they had with them any Revelation that their Prophet had brought them from God and, when Ja’far answered that they had, he said: “Then recite it to me,” whereupon Ja’far recited a passage from the Surah of Mary, which had been revealed shortly before their departure:

And make mention of Mary in the Book, when she withdrew from her people unto a place towards the east, and secluded herself from them; and We sent unto her Our Spirit, and it appeared unto her in the likeness of a perfect man. She said: I take refuge from thee in the Infinitely Good, if any piety thou hast. He said: I am none other than a messenger from thy Lord that I may bestow on thee a son most pure. She said: How can there be for me a son, when no man hath touched me, nor am I unchaste? He said: Even so shall it be; thy Lord saith: It is easy for Me. That We may make him a sign for mankind and a mercy from Us; and it is a thing ordained. (Qur’an 19:16-21)

The Negus wept, and his bishops wept also, when they heard him recite, and when it was translated they wept again, and the Negus said:

“This hath truly come from the same source as that which Jesus brought.”

Then he turned to the two envoys of Quraysh and said:

“Ye may go, for by God I will not deliver them unto you; they shall not be betrayed.”

But when they had withdrawn from the royal presence, ‘Amr said to his companion: “Tomorrow I will tell him a thing that shall tear up this green growing prosperity of theirs by the roots. I will tell him that they aver that Jesus the son of Mary is a slave.” So the next morning he went to the Negus and said:

“O King, they utter an enormous lie about Jesus the son of Mary. Do but send to them, and ask them what they say of him.”

So he sent them word to come to him again and to tell him what they said of Jesus, whereupon they were troubled, for nothing of this kind had ever yet befallen them. They consulted together as to what they should reply when the question was put to them, though they all knew that they had no choice but to say what God had said.

So when they entered the royal presence, and it was said to them: “What say ye of Jesus, the son of Mary?” Ja’far answered:

“We say of him what our Prophet brought unto us, that he is the slave of God and His Messenger and His Spirit and His Word which He cast unto Mary the blessed virgin.” The Negus took up a piece of wood and said:

“Jesus the son of Mary exceedeth not what thou hast said by the length of this stick.”

And when the generals round him snorted, he added: “For all your snorting.” Then he turned to Ja’far and his companions and said: “Go your ways, for ye are safe in my land. Not for mountains of gold would I harm a single man of you”; and with a movement of his hand towards the envoys of Quraysh, he said to his attendant: “Return unto these two men their gifts, for I have no use for them.” So ‘Amr and the other man went back ignominiously to Mecca.

Meantime the news of what the Negus had said about Jesus spread among the people, and they were troubled and came out against him asking for an explanation, and accusing him of having left their religion. He thereupon sent to Ja’far and his companions and made ready boats for them and told them to embark and be ready to set sail if necessary. Then he took a parchment and wrote on it:

“He testifieth that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is His slave and His Messenger and that Jesus the son of Mary is His slave and His Messenger and His Spirit and His Word which He cast unto Mary.”

Then he put it beneath his gown and went out to his people who were assembled to meet him. And he said them: “Abyssinians, have I not the best claim to be your king?” They said that he had. “Then what think ye of my life amongst you?” “It hath been the best of lives,” they answered. “Then what is it that troubleth you?” he said. “Thou hast left our religion,” they said, “and hast maintained that Jesus is a slave.” “Then what say ye of Jesus?” he asked. “We say that he is the son of God,” they answered. Then he put his hand on his breast, pointing to where the parchment was hidden and testified to his belief in “this”, which they took to refer to their words. So they were satisfied and went away, for they were happy under his rule, and only wished to be reassured; and the Negus sent word to Ja’far and his companions that they could disembark and go back to their dwellings’ where they went on living as before, in comfort and security.

In 628 CE, a few months before Hudaybiyah, news had come from Abyssinia of the death of ‘Ubayd Allah ibn Jahsh. His wife Umm Habibah (ra) was Abu Sufyan’s daughter. When four months had elapsed after the death of her husband, the Prophet sent a message to the Negus, asking him to stand proxy for himself and to ratify a marriage between him and the widow, if she were willing. To her the Prophet sent no message directly; but she had a dream in which someone came to her and addressed her as “Mother of the Faithful”, and she interpreted this as meaning that she would become the wife of the prophet. The next day she received the message from the Negus which confirmed her dream, whereupon she chose her kinsman Khalid ibn Sa’id to give her in marriage, and he and the Negus solemnized the pact between them in the presence of Ja’far and others of the brethren. Then the Negus held a wedding feast in his palace, and all the Muslims were invited.

The Prophet’s letter to Negus inviting him to proclaim Islam was sent at this time. The Prophet had also sent word to Ja’far that it would please him if he and his community would now come to live in Medina. Ja’far forthwith set about making preparations for the journey, and the Negus gave them two boats. It was decided that Umm Habibah should travel with them….


Chosroes II, Siroes, And Prophet Muhammad (SAW) (628 CE)
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) prevailed over the Meccans in the ‘Battle of Trench.’ Abu Sufyan had mustered an army of more than ten thousand with the support from his Arab and Jewish allies. It was the largest army in the history of Arab warfare. They laid the siege of Medina, which lasted for about a month. In the end, the Meccan army left after their great loss of provisions and men from the rain and excessive wind storm.

The news of the outcome of this battle and Prophet Muhammad’s increasing authority in and around Medina alarmed the neighboring rulers. Before Chosroes II received Prophet’s letter, he sent an order to Badhan, his viceroy in the Yemen, asking for information about the Prophet’s strength. Badhan sent two envoys to Medina to gather the needed information. According to fashion prevalent at the Persian court, the envoys had shaved their beards and grown long moustaches. Their appearance was abhorrent to the Prophet and he asked, “Who asked you to do this?” “Our lord,” they said, meaning Chosroes. The Prophet then said, “My Lord [Allah (The One True God)] has ordered me to grow my beard and cut short my moustache.” After some deliberations, he sent them away telling them to see him the next day. That night the Archangel Gabriel (pbuh) told the Prophet that on the same day there had been an uprising in Persia in which Chosroes had been killed, and his son was now the ruler.

When the envoys returned, the Prophet told them of the bad news and asked them to convey it to the viceroy. Then he added: “Tell him that my religion and my empire will reach far beyond the kingdom of Chosroes; and say to him from me: Enter Islam, and I will confirm you in what you have, and I will appoint you king over the people of Yemen.” The envoys returned to Sana, not knowing what to conclude, and delivered the message to Badhan. Upon hearing it, he said: “We will see what happens next. If what he said is true, then he is the prophet whom God has sent.”

Within days, a messenger arrived from Siroes, the new Shah, informing Badhan what had happened, and demanded their allegiance. Instead of replying to Siroes, Badhan, the two envoys and other Persians close to him entered Islam. Badhan then sent a message to Medina proclaiming his Islam, and the Prophet confirmed his rule over the Yemen. This event was the fulfillment of the first flash of light from the trench.

The Prophet’s letter reached Mada’in after the death of Chosroes, so it was delivered to his successor. Siroes was infuriated at the boldness of the Prophet addressing him on equal terms – “From Muhammad bin Abdullah to Chosroes the Chief of Persia.” The wording of the Prophet’s letter was similar to those sent to other Kings. Siroes’ sole answer was to tear it in pieces. Upon hearing this, the Prophet said “Even so, O Lord, tear from him his kingdom.” The Prophet’s supplication was heard and Allah gave Muslims the dominion over Persia within ten years. It was fulfilled during the leadership of the Second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab (ra). Also, this was the beginning of the fulfillment of the third flash of light from the trench.



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