Virtues and Events of the Islamic Months
Wednesday, 8 May 2019.
- Muharram was appointed the first month of the Hijri calendar by ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallahu anhu) at the suggestion of ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan (radiallahu anhu) in the year 16 AH.
- The sending of letters to the kings and leaders. Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) wrote to the kings of the earth at that time (7 AH) after returning from Al-Hudaibiyyah. He sent six men in a single day to the Najashi (ruler) of Abyssinia (Ethiopia), the Caeser (ruler) of Rome, the Kisra (ruler of Persia) Anu Shirwan, the Muqawqas, who was the ruler of the Copts (in Alexandria, Egypt), Al-Harith bin Abu Shamir Al-Ghassani, the King of Al Balqa’ (in Syria), and Hawdhah bin ‘Ali Al-Hanafi of Al-Yamamah.
- The Prophet’s marriage to Khadijah bint Khuwailid (radiallahu anha).
- The permission (for Muslims) to fight. The Hadiths and reports from the Companions prove that the beginning of the legislation for fighting took place after the Hijrah (migration to Al-Madinah).
- This is the month in which the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) was born and received his first mission of Prophethood. It is also the month in which he was taken on a night journey (Israa) to the Aqsa Mosque in Palestine. It is also the month in which he migrated to Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah and the month of his death.
- The expedition of Safawan – also known as the First Battle of Badr took place.
- The expedition of Buwat took place. This also occured 13 months after the Hijrah.
- The expedition of Dawmatul-Jandal took place in 5 AH.
- The expedition of Bani Lihyan bin Hudhayl bin Mudrikah took place in 6 AH.
- Allegiance was given to Abu Bakr (radiallahu anhu) as the caliph of the Muslims on the 12th of Rabi’ul-Awwal in 11 AH.
- Abu Bakr’s dispatching of the army of Usamah bin Zaid (radiallahu anha) to confront the Romans in the lands of Ash-Sham. This took place in 11 AH.
- The land of Al-Hirah in Iraq was conquered by Khalid bin Al-Walid (radiallahu anha) and a treaty was made. This took place in 12 AH.
- The expedition of Najran took place in 3 AH.
- The expedition of Abu ‘Ubaidah (radiallahu anhu) to Dhul-Qassah in 6 AH.
- The besieging of Damascus by the Muslims in 14 AH. The siege lasted approximately 70 nights under the command of Abu ‘Ubaidah and Khalid bin Al-Walid (radiallahu anha).
- The expedition of Al-‘Ushairah took place exactly 16 months after the Hijrah in which Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) made a treaty with Bani Mudlij and their allies, Bani Dhamrah.
- The expedition of Dhaat Ar-Riqa’ took place in 2 AH. Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) set out in the direction of Najd (an area of Eastern Arabia) seeking to confront Bani Maharib and Bani Tha’labah from Ghatafan, however no battle took place.
- The battle of Mu’tah occured in 8 AH. Mu’tah is a place near Al-Balqa’ which is in Ash-Sham (Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon combined).
- The battle of Ajnadin took place in 15 AH between the Romans and the Muslims under the leadership of ‘Amr bin Al-As, Abu ‘Ubaidah and Shurahbil, and the Romans under the leadership of Al-Qubuqlar (or Wardan). The Romans were defeated and their leader was killed.
- The expedition of Dhu Qarad took place in the year 6 AH. On that day Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) offered the Prayer of Fear (Salat-ul-Khawf).
- The expedition of Dhat As-Salasil took place in the year 8 AH.
- Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (radiallahu anhu) died on Monday with eight days remaining in the month of Jumada Al-Akhirah, in the year 13 AH. He was 63 years old. His caliphate (Khalifah) lasted for two years, three months and ten nights.
- ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallahu anhu) was given the pledge of allegiance as the caliph (Khalifah) in the year 13 AH.
- The battle of Al-Yarmuk took place between the Romans and the Muslims, who were under the leadership of Khalid bin Al-Walid and Abu ‘Ubaidah (radiallahu anhu).
- The Islamic reinforcement troops arrived in Egypt under the leadership of Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam, Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad, ‘Ubadah bin As-Samit and Maslamah bin Mukhallad (radiallahu anhum).
- The first Hijrah took place to Abyssinia (Ethiopia). When the trials of the Muslims became severe in Makkah, Allah allowed them to migrate Abyssinia. ‘Uthman bin Affan was the first person to migrate. These immigrants left for Abyssinia in the 5th year after the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) received his mission of Prophethood.
- The expedition of ‘Abdullah bin Jahsh Al-Asadi (radiallahu anhu) to Nakhlah 17 months after the Hijrah. This was the first battle in which war booty (Ghanimah) was taken, Khums was given, killing took place and the Muslims took captives.
- The expedition of Tabuk took place in the year 9 AH. It was also called the expedition of Al-‘Usrah (the difficulty).
- Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) announced the death of An-Najashi to the Muslims and he led those with him in prayer (Salatul-Janaazah) for him on the day he died.
- Damascus was conquered by the Muslims by way of a treaty that was made. Abu ‘Ubaidah and Khalid bin Al-Walid (radiallahu anhu) besieged the city from Rabi ‘Al-Akhir till Rajab.
- This is the month in which the Qiblah (direction of prayer) was changed from Bait-ul-Maqdis (Jerusalem) to the Ka’bah, 16 or 17 months after the Hijrah. This was the first thing to be abrogated of the Shari’ah.
- The fast of Ramadan was made obligatory in the year 2 AH.
- This is the month in which the Qur’an was revealed. Allah says: “The month of Ramadan, in which the Qur’an was revealed (i.e. sent down).” (2:185) It is also the month in which the first verse of Allah’s Book (the Qur’an) was revealed (to the Prophet (P.B.U.H.)). This Verse was revealed on the 17th of Ramadan. Khadijah (radiallahu anha) accepted Islam and became the first person to believe in the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). She also died during this month.
- The expedition of Hamzah (radiallahu anhu) and the first standard (flag of war) was chosen by Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.). This occurred exactly 7 months after the Hijrah.
- Zakatul-Fitr (charity given in the form of food at the end of Ramadan) and the Zakat upon wealth was made obligatory during this month. Also the “Eid prayer was instituted during this month. All of this happened in the year 2 AH.
- The command to perform Jihaad came in this month during the year 2 AH.
- The battle of Badr was fought on the 17th of Ramadan, on a Friday (Jumu’ah) in the year 2 AH. This is the day that the Qur’an calls “The Day of Criterion” (Yawmul-Furqan).
- Makkah was conquered on the 10th of Ramadan, in the year 8 AH.
- The delegation of Thaqif accepted Islam in the year 9 AH.
- Fatimah (radiallahu anha) the daughter of Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) died in the year 11 AH.
- The Mother of the Believers, Aishah (radiallahu anha) died in the year 58 AH.
- This is the first of the months of Hajj, and they are Shawwal, Dhul-Qa’dah and the first nine days of Dhul-Hijjah.
- The expedition of Batan Rabigh took place under the leadership of ‘Ubaidah bin AlHarith (radiallahu anhu).
- ‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair (radiallahu anhu) was born in the year 1 AH and he was the first child to be born to the Muslim immigrants (Muhajirum) after the Hijrah (to Al-Madinah).
- The marriage of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) to the Mother of the believers, ‘Aishah (radiallahu anhu), took place during this month.
- The expedition of Bani Sulaim took place at Al-Kudr in the year 2 AH.
- The expedition of Bani Qainuqa’ took place in the year 2 AH. Banu Qainuqa’ were the first tribe of Jews of Al-Madinah to wage war against the Prophet (P.B.U.H.).
- The battle of Uhud took place in the middle of the month of Shawwal, in the year 3 AH. The battle of Hamra Al-Asad took place immediately after the battle of Uhud.
- The battle of Khandaq (the trench) or Ahzab took place in the year 5 AH
- The battle of Hunain took place in the year 8 AH after the quest of Makkah.
- The expedition of At-Ta’if took place in the year 8 AH after the battle of Hunain.
- Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) attacked city of At-Ta’if in order to fight those disbelievers who had fled from the battle of Hunain.
- Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) presented himself before the tribes during the Hajj season and he held a private meeting with six people from the tribe of Al-Khazraj at Al-‘Aqabah. This happened 11years after he received his mission of Prophethood.
- The expedition against the Jews of Banu Quraizah took place in the year 5 AH.
- The situation of Al-Hudaibiyyah took place in the year 6 AH
- Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari and Mu’adh bin Jabal (radiallahu anha) were sent to Yemen during this month, in the year 10 AH.
- The ‘Umrahs of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) were all during this month except that the ‘Umrah that he performed during his Hajj.
- The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) sent out for the Farewell Hajj (Hajjat-ul-Wada’) during this month.
- The cities of Hims and Ba’labak were conquered at the hands of Abu ‘Ubaidah (radiallahu anhu) by way of a treaty in the year 14 AH.
- Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufiyan (radiallahu anha) was given the pledge of allegiance as the caliph (Khalifah) in the year 37 AH.
- The Prophet (P.B.U.H.) took his second trip to Ash-Sham.
- The second Pledge (Bai’ah) of Al-‘Aqabah took place 13 years after the beginning of the Prophet’s mission of Prophethood
- The expedition of As-Sawiq took place in the year 2 AH.
- Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) attacked Banu Quraizah in the year 5 AH during this month
- The birth of Ibrahim, the son of Allah’s Messenger (P.B.U.H.) from Mariya Al-Qabtiyyah, in the year 8 AH.
- The Hajj of the first Khalifah Abu Bakr (radiallahu anhu) with the people in the year 12 AH.
- The battle of Dathin near Gaza at the outskirts of Palestine. This was the first battle between the Muslims and the Romans. It took place in the year 12 AH.
- The Commander of the believers, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiallahu anhu) was assisinated. He was stabbed by Abu Lu’lu’ah Al-Majusi on the 25th of Dhul-Hijjah, in the year 23 AH.
- ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan (radiallahu anhu) was chosen as the Khalifah of the Muslims.
- The Commander of the believers, ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan (radiallahu anhu) was assasinated on Friday (Jumu’ah), the 18th of Dhul-Hijjah, in the year 35 AH.
- ‘Ali bin Abu Talib (radiallahu anhu) was given the pledge (Bai’ah) as the Khalifah on the 25th of Dhul-Hijjah, in the year 35 AH.
Meaning of the names of the months:
- Muharram [“Forbidden” – it is one of the four months during which time it is forbidden to wage war or fight]
- Safar [“Empty” or “Yellow”]
- Rabi al-Awwal [“First spring”]
- Rabi al-Thani [“Second spring”]
- Jumada al-Awwal [“First freezing”]
- Jumada al-Thani [“Second freezing”]
- Rajab [“To respect” – this is another holy month when
fighting is prohibited]
- Shaban [“To spread and distribute”]
- Ramadan [“Parched thirst” – this is the month of Islamic daytime fasting]
- Shawwal [“To be light and vigorous”]
- Dhul-Qida [“The month of rest” – another month when no warfare or fighting is allowed]
- Dhul-Hijja [“The month of Hajj” – this is the month of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, again when no warfare or fighting is allowed]
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